Pre 1.4.13 CFA – Advocacy or Litigation services provided OR not?

The recent case of Choudhury -v- Markerstudy could have serious repercussions for receiving parties in Detailed Assessments.  Here is a brief summary of the case:

  • Rohan Choudhury (a child) suffered an accident on 12 March 2013. Rohan was a minor and was therefore represented by her Mother, Mrs Choudhury.
  • An Infant Approval hearing took place in January 2015, where the Court approved a settlement figure of £1,050.00.
  • The Claimant was represented by Irwin Mitchell solicitors, who at the time of instruction, were acting under a Collective Conditional Fee Agreement (CCFA) with Aviva.
  • Following the accident Aviva wrote to the Claimant, and thereafter, Irwin Mitchell wrote to the Claimant explaining the terms in which they would be retained. Those letters were sent before 1 April 2013, but no other work was carried out.
  • Mrs Choudhury instructed Irwin Mitchell by signing a document on 1 April 2013 and returning it. The document that she signed was the pre 1 April 2013 CCFA.
  • The Defendant argued that the retainer was invalid because it was signed and entered into on 1 April 2013, but was based on a regime which on 1 April 2013, was no longer available to litigants (and therefore invalid).
  • The Claimant stated that this was incorrect because ‘Advocacy or litigation Services were provided to the Claimant under the agreement in connection with that matter before the commencement day’ (Section 44.6, 6b of the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 – ‘LASPO’).
  • The Court ruled that ‘Advocacy or litigation services’ had not been provided and therefore the retainer was invalid. As a consequence, no costs were payable by the Defendant to the Claimant as there was no indemnity between the Claimant and the Claimants Solicitors.

The District Judge clearly adopted a strict interpretation of LASPO and what amounts to ‘Advocacy and litigation services’. The paying party did not dispute that if litigation services had been provided then the retainer would have been valid.

This Judgment will no doubt cause concern to receiving parties.  Whilst the Judgment is only at County Court level, it will encourage paying parties to raise such arguments. There will still be plenty of cases left in the system where the additional liabilities were entered into very close to 1 April 2013.  In fact, it was widely reported in many legal publications (at the time) that law firms had signed up clients to Conditional Fee Agreements, and in particular ATE insurance, very close to the deadline of 1 April 2013.

Many believe that a black and white approach should be adopted in relation to the inception i.e. if the additional liability was incepted pre 1 April 2013 then it is valid and the associated additional liability recoverable, however, if it is entered into post 1 April 2013 then the additional liability is not recoverable.  The issue over ‘Advocacy or litigation services’ will create some interesting arguments!

In my opinion, what law firms should have done is sent a “holding” Letter of Claim to the Opponent (or likely Opponent) prior to 1 April 2013.  Surely, this would have provided protection from the ‘Advocacy or litigation services’ point?

The key practical point from the Judgment is that the work which was done before 1 April 2013 was effectively ‘client care’ work. In reality, the case will only have an impact on clients who were signed up to CFA’s and/or ATE insurance premiums close to 1 April 2013.  For example, if a client was on a private fee paying retainer from say January 2013, but switched to a CFA retainer in late March 2013, then ‘Advocacy or litigation services’ would have most likely been provided by the time the CFA was entered. This scenario would therefore be safe from the argument.

It is widely reported that fixed costs for all fast track work and low level multi-track work will be introduced in October 2018. Those who draft the rules as to implementation need to do so carefully as otherwise arguments and satellite litigation will take place.

This blog was prepared by Andrew McAulay who is a Partner at Clarion and the Head of the Costs and Litigation Funding. He can be contacted on 0113 336 3334 or at andrew.mcaulay@clarionsolicitors.com.

 

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Looking Back: are costs incurred prior to the date of a CFA recoverable?

For retainers entered into on and after 1 April 2013, success fees have been, in the vast majority of cases, unrecoverable inter partes. For this reason, it is easy to think that there is less need to be rigorous in compliance with the letter of the rules relating to CFAs as, the thinking goes, they will never be tested. Unfortunately such an attitude can have dire consequences, and could even lead to all of the costs claimed being disallowed.Read More »

“Further decision on the Assignment of CFAs from Master Rowley in the SCCO”

In Webb v London Borough of Bromley 2016 (unreported), the Claimant challenged a decision by Master Rowley following the Provisional Assessment of the Claimant’s Bill of Costs. Within the Provisional Assessment, Master Rowley had found an assigned CFA between Lefevre LLP to Glamorgan Law LLP (on behalf of the Claimant) to be unenforceable as it failed to comply with the CFA Order 2013. The Master awarded no fees following the transfer to Glamorgan Law LLP other than disbursements paid directly by the Claimant.

The Claimant proceeded to challenge that decision and the matter proceeded to an oral hearing on 18 February 2016. Master Rowley listened to submissions on behalf of both parties but again concluded at paragraphs 60 and 61 of the Judgment that the CFA was unenforceable and that the assigned document failed to comply with the fundamental features of a CFA post 01 April 2013. The Master confirmed that “non-compliance with the Regulations is fatal” and proceeded to revise his original decision and concluded that “those costs relating to Glamorgan Law LLP are not recoverable either as to base costs or as to the success fee”.

Any questions? Please contact Joanne Chase at joanne.chase@clarionsolicitors.com or call on 0113 336 3327