Following on from the Court of Appeal decision in Jacqueline Dawn Harrison v University Hospitals Coventry & Warwickshire NHS Trust  WECA Civ 792 where the Court of Appeal found that:
- The budgeted costs will not be departed from in the absence of a “good reason”;
- Incurred costs do not form part of the budgeted costs;
- The good reason test does not apply to those incurred costs;
- The proportionality test can be applied to the final claim for costs, despite the proportionality test having been applied when the costs budget was approved.
As predicted, we have seen that in practical terms this is good news for those that prepare accurate budgets, but not so for those that don’t. The practical implications of this Court of Appeal decision has an impact on the recovery of your legal fees, as follows:
If the budget has not been exceeded:
- The budgeted costs will be allowed in full unless a good reason is demonstrated to depart from the budget;
- A detailed assessment of the budgeted costs can be avoided.
If the budget has been exceeded:
- The budgeted costs will be restricted to the amount of the budgeted costs that were approved, unless good reason can be demonstrated to depart from the budget.
Win win for those with well prepared budgets. In addition, following approval of the budget, further consideration should be given to the budget throughout the lifetime of the claim. Examples of which are as follows:
Q1. Is it necessary to consider the budget in preparation for the trial?
Answer – yes.
If you win and your budget has not been exceeded:
- Ask the court to order that the budgeted costs claimed are allowed in full;
- Only incurred costs will be assessed by way of detailed assessment;
- If the trial is less than one day, ask the court to summary assess the incurred costs. The court may assess the budgeted costs, however if the costs fall within budget, these should be allowed in full. Present your budgeted costs in phases to demonstrate to the court that the budget has not been exceed on a phase by phase basis;
- Assess any potential good reasons that your opponent may raise to depart downwards from your budget and be ready to defend those arguments;
- Ask for a payment on account of the incurred costs, these remaining costs being subject to assessment.
If you win and your budget has been exceeded:
- If no good reason can be demonstrated to depart from your budget, the court should limit your claim for costs to the approved budget amounts;
- Therefore establish a good reason to depart from the budget so that the costs can be assessed by way of detailed assessment rather than being restricted to the approved amount of the budget. This will provide you more of an opportunity to justify your costs and overspends;
- Request a payment of the approved costs, payable within 14 days;
- Request a payment on account of the remaining incurred costs, payable within 14 days.
If you lose and your opponent’s budget has been exceeded, their budgeted costs should be limited to the budget:
- The winner can obtain costs in excess of the budget if they can show a good reason to depart from the budget, so be ready so defend any good reasons that the winner may raise to depart from the budget.
If you lose and your opponent’s budget has not been exceeded, their budgeted costs should be limited to the budget:
- A good reason is required to depart from the budget, therefore if you can identify a good reason to depart from the winner’s budget you can secure a reduction to the winner’s budgeted costs.
Q2. What are examples of a good reason?
Answer – examples of a good reason to depart down are:
- Did the winner undertake all the work that was provided for in the budget?
- Were there any adverse costs orders, amount needs to be excluded from the budget?
- Proportionality test – does the proportionality test that was applied at the CCMC require revisiting?
Q3. Why raise those good reasons at the trial?
- Defers the assessment of costs to detailed assessment, if deemed beneficial;
- Minimises the amount of the payment on account;
- Minimise the amount of budgeted costs payable.
Remember, incurred costs are subject to detailed assessment in the normal way – ensure that the court is aware that this is only applicable to budgeted costs.
Q4. What role does the budget have in securing a Payment on Account?
Answer – the court will scrutinise the amount that was approved in the budget when determining the amount of the payment on account.
- If the court refuses to order the payment of your budgeted costs in full, and opts to order a payment on account instead, request the following amounts:
- Thomas Pink Ltd v Victoria’s Secret UK Ltd  EWHC 3258 (Ch) (31 July 2014) – POA of 90% of budget;
- Cleveland Bridge UK Ltd v Sarens (UK) Ltd  EWHC 827 (TCC) – POA of 70% incurred costs and 90% estimated costs.
- Be ready to defend any good reason to depart from the budget that your opponent may raise, this will assist in securing the maximum payment on account, conversely remember to raise any good reason arguments to depart down if you are payer rather than payee.
Q5. What role does the budget have at the mediation or settlement meeting?
Answer – the budget enables parties to be fully aware of their costs exposure, so an informed decision can be made when determining whether to settle. Update the budget for the ADR meeting so that costs may be agreed at the same time and be ready with the same arguments in terms of departure from the budget that would be applied at the trial.
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